1.  Casko J, Shepherd W.  Dental and Skeletal Variation Within the Range of Normal.  Angle Orthod 1984; 54: 5-17.

2.  Sameshima GT, Sinclair PM. Predicting and preventing root resorption: part II. Treatment factors. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2001;119:511-5.

5.  Brin I. Tulloch C. Koroluk L. Philips C. External apical root resorption in Class II malocclusion: A retrospective review of 1- versus 2-phase treatment. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2003; 124:151-6.

6.  Higgins D. Indirect Bonding with Light-Cured Adhesive and a Hybrid Transfer Tray. Semin Orthod 2007;13:64-68.

3.  Sondhi, Anoop:  Efficient and Effective Indirect Bonding.  Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1999;115:352-9.

4.  Kalange J: Ideal appliance placement with APC brackets and indirect bonding. J Clin Orthod 33:516-526, 1999

8.  Miles P, Weyant R,  Rustveld L. A clinical trial of Damon 2 vs conventional twin brackets during initial alignment.  Angle Orthod 2006; 76: 480-485.

9.  Harris D, Jones A, Darendeliler A.  Volumetric analysis of root resorption craters after application of controlled intrusive light and heavy orthodontic forces:  A microcomputed tomography scan study.  Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2006; 130: 639-647.

10.  Badawi H, Toogood R, Carey J, Heo G, Major P.  Torque expression of self-ligating brackets.  Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2008;133:721-8.

11. O'Brien, K et al. Effectiveness of treatment for Class II malocclusion with the Herbst or Twin-block appliances: A randomized, controlled trial. Am
J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2003;124:128-37.

12. Ruf S, Hansen K, Pancherz H. Does orthodontic proclination of lower incisors in children and adolescents cause gingival recession? Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1998;114.

13. Barbagallo L, Jones A, Petocz P, Darendeliler A. Physical properties of root cementum: Part 10. Comparison of the effects of invisible removable thermoplastic appliances with light and heavy orthodontic forces on premolar cementum. A microcomputed-tomography study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2008;133:218-27


15. Carlos Flores-Mir, Abenaa Ayeh, Ashim Goswani, Shouresh Charkhandeh. Skeletal and Dental Changes in Class II division 1 Malocclusions Treated with Splint-Type Herbst Appliances.The Angle Orthodontist The Angle Orthodontist Volume 77, Issue 2 (March 2007) pp. 376-381

16. Carlos Flores-Mir, Michael P. Major, Paul W. Major. Soft Tissue Changes with Fixed Functional Appliances in Class II division 1. The Angle Orthodontist Volume 76, Issue 4 (July 2006) pp. 712-720

17.Carlos Flores-Mir, Paul W. Major. Cephalometric Facial Soft Tissue Changes with the Twin Block Appliance in Class II division 1 Malocclusion Patients. The Angle Orthodontist Volume 76, Issue 5 (September 2006) pp. 876-881

18. Sayeh Ehsani, Marie-Alice Mandich, Tarek H. El-Bialy, Carlos Flores-Mir. Frictional Resistance in Self-Ligating Orthodontic Brackets and Conventionally Ligated Brackets. The Angle Orthodontist Volume 79, Issue 3 (May 2009) pp. 592-601

19. Amy Archambault, Ryan Lacoursiere, Hisham Badawi, Paul W. Major, Jason Carey, Carlos Flores-Mir. Torque Expression in Stainless Steel Orthodontic Brackets. The Angle Orthodontist Volume 80, Issue 1 (January 2010) pp. 201-210

20. Anchalee Paetyangkul, Tamer Türk, Selma Elekdağ-Türk, Allan S. Jones, Peter Petocz, M. Ali Darendeliler. Physical properties of root cementum: Part 14. The amount of root resorption after force application for 12 weeks on maxillary and mandibular premolars: A microcomputed-tomography study. American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics October 2009 (Vol. 136, Issue 4, Pages 492.e1-492.e9)

21. Short-term skeletal and dental effects of the Xbow appliance as measured on lateral cephalograms. Carlos Flores-Mir, Gregory Barnett, Duncan W. Higgins, Giseon Heo, Paul W. Major. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2009; 136: 822-32

22. Three-dimensional orthodontic force measurements. Hisham M. Badawi, Roger W. Toogood, Jason P. R. Carey, Giseon Heo, Paul W. Major. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2009;136:518-28

23. Lower incisor inclination changes during Xbow treatment according to vertical facial type. Carlos Flores-Mir, Arden Young, Amira Greiss, Matthew Woynorowski, James Peng. Angle Orthod 2010;80:1075–1080.

24. Self-ligating vs conventional brackets in the treatment of mandibular crowding: A prospective clinical trial of treatment duration and dental effects. Nikolaos Pandis, Argy Polychronopoulou, Theodore Eliades. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2007;132:208-15.

25. Orthodontic therapy and gingival recession: a systematic review. Joss-Vassalli I, Grebenstein C, Topouzelis N, Sculean A, Katsaros C: Orthod Craniofac Res 2010;13:127–141.

26. Interarch Maxillary Molar Distalization Appliances for Class II Correction. Berkman M, Haerian A, McNamara J. J Clin Orthod 2008;42:35-42.

27.Effectiveness of orthodontic treatment with functional appliances on mandibular growth in the short term. Elvira Marsico, Elda Gatto, Maryalba Burrascano, Giovanni Matarese, and Giancarlo Cordasco. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2011;139:24-36.

28.Treatment effects of the edgewise Herbst appliance: A cephalometric and tomographic investigation. Ryan VanLaecken, Chris A. Martin, Terry Dischinger, Thomas Razmus, Peter Ngane. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2006;130:582-93.

29. Prediction of lower incisor proclination during Xbow treatment based on initial cephalometric variables. Tehnia Aziz; Usama Nassar; Carlos Flores-Mir

Angle Orthodontist Online, October, 2011.

The XbowTM Class II Corrector is protected by the following patents:
Canadian Patent No. 2,392,021
Australian Patent No. 774128
Taiwan Patent No. 143,056

Credit to Sandra Ipsen of Comfort Solutions for Forsus Fatigue Resistant Device adjustment and photography, Wendy Schock for photography,
and Libby Pearson of Delta Orthodontic Technical Services for artistic wirebending

Herbst is a trademark of Dentaurum, Inc.
APC, Filtek, Forsus, SmartClip, Transbond, and Unitek are trademarks of 3M Company.
Crossbow, Xbow,  Triple "L" Arch and "Straight to the Target When Straight is the Target" are trademarks of Dr. Duncan W. Higgins.

Aquarium is a trademark of Dolphin Imaging and Management Solutions.

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